26 April 2018

Wang Wei: 2 "Farewell" Poems 王維: "送別"詩 2首

Today, I am re-posting 2 poems on the theme of "Farewell" by the great poet of the High Tang (dynasty) Period.  I have taken the opportunity to slightly polish the first poem which is a 5-character quatrain; for the second, a 5-character 6-line old style poem, I have decided to revert to my original March 2017 version.  I do hope you will find them the more enjoyable.  Here they are:-

A:  Wang Wei (701-761):  Farewell (Here in the hills, I bade you farewell)

Here in the hills, I bade you farewell;
Now by dusk I close my twiggen door.
Oh grass will again be green next spring!
Might you, my lord, be back once more?

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa)  
譯者黃宏發
24 September 2013 (revised 25.9.13; 26.9.13; 3.10.13; 4.10.13; 5.10.13; 21.10.13; 22.10.13; 28.10.13; 26.4.2018)
Translated from the original - 
王維:  送別 (山中相送罷)

山中相送罷
日暮掩柴扉
春草明年綠
王孫歸不歸

B:  Wang Wei: Farewell (Dismounted, we drank to bid you farewell)

Dismounted, we drank to bid you farewell;
I asked, “My friend, where are you heading?”
“Oh, nothing is working my way,” you said,        
“So be back to the crags of Nanshan, retiring.”
“Go then!  Of the world, you’ll ask no more!
Ah, days of endless white clouds, unending!” 

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa)  
譯者黃宏發
5 February 2017 (revised 9.2.17; 11.2.17; 1.3.17: 24.4.17; 26.4.2018)
http://chinesepoemsinenglish.blogspot.hk/2017/03/
Translated from the original –
王維送別 (下馬飲君酒)

下馬飲君酒
問君何所之
君言不得意
歸卧南山陲
但去莫復問
白雲無盡時

08 April 2018

曹鄴 Cao Ye: 官倉鼠 Rats in Government Granaries


What I am posting today is a 7-character quatrain by Cao Ye of late Tang when theTang dynasty was on the decline.  It is a light verse on a serious subject---corruption---using "rats" as the analogy.  

Line 1 says: like rats in granaries, government officials are unduly rich, unduly fat.  Line 2 says: their corruption, including (more than just embezzlement) extortion, perversion of justice, etc. is open, blatant.  Line 3 says: as a result, army provisions cut and the people go hungry.  Line 4, finally, asks the rhetorical question: who has made or allowed you rats/officials to feast like that, crying out against corruption and hinting at pervasive corruption whether systemic or condoned.  I hope my "by/ Whose grace..." has done full justice to the ambiguity in the poet's 遣.

Please enjoy this as a sequel to   Li Shen's   2 "Pity the Peasants" poems posted in  my last post.

Cao Ye (816?-875?): Rats in Government Granaries

1   Rats in government gran'ries are fat like cats, I say;
2   Ev’n if one opens the door, they just won’t go away.
3   Soldiers’ supplies depleted, folks famished, why! O by            
4   Whose grace you feed and fete each ev’ry single day?     

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa)    譯者: 黃宏發
16th January 2017 (revised 22.1.17)
Translated from the original - 曹鄴: 官倉鼠

1   官倉老鼠大如斗
2   見人開門亦不走     
3   健兒無糧百姓饑
4   遣朝朝入君口

Notes:-

*Form, Metre and Rhyme:  The original is a 7-character quatrain.  This English rendition is in hexameter (6 beats or feet) while the original is in 7-syllable lines.  The rhyme scheme is AAXA as in the original.

*Title and Line 1:  is rendered as “government” after considering “official” and “imperial”, and as “granaries” after considering “depots” and “storage”.  in line 1 is a unit of dry measure for grains and, thus, the vessel used in measuring the volume.  It is either a bucket with a handle in the middle or a dipper (scoop) with a handle by the side or at the end.  Although I have been unable to determine the actual size, it cannot be too big as the vessel is used for speedy measurement probably with one arm.  It is not huge but, certainly, bigger than a rat.  In any case, I have in my rendition, changed the 大如斗 “as big as a bucket/dipper” simile to a “fat like cats” simile which is more vivid and which rings with the “rats, fat, cats” rhyme.  I have now checked the 漢語大詞典 (pp. 8-13) and learned that in the Tang dynasty, one “dou” is equivalent to about 2 litres, the size of a fat cat.  The current equivalent (which began from the Ming dynasty) is 10 litres.

 
*Line 2:  見人 (see, man) is taken to mean 有人 (there is, man) and is rendered as “…if one”.  開門(open, door) is rendered literally as “opens the door”.  亦不 (even so , won’t) is rendered as “Ev’n … just won’t”.  For the entire half line 亦不走, I had originally toyed with the idea of reinforcing “won’t go” by adding “but stay” in the place of “away” as 不走 (won’t go) means the same as 要留 (want to stay), but considering the poet has chosen 不走 over 要留, I have decided to render it literally as “they just won’t go away”.

*Line 3:  健兒 (athletes, the athletic) refers to “Soldiers’” and is rendered as such after considering “The braves’”.  健兒糧盡 is rendered as “Soldiers’ supplies depleted” after considering “provisions,” and 百姓饑 as “folks famished”.  The word “why”, read stressed, which is not in the original, is added to complete the 6-beat line and to strengthen the sense of indignation, irrespective of whether it is used as an exclamation or a question.  The last 2 words “O by”, read unstressed, are added to create an enjambment that links up line 3 and 4 to heighten the contrast between hunger and feast.

*Line 4:  is literally “who”.  While the meaning of the word is various, to make sense in this context, it can only mean “make. let or allow”.  誰遣 therefore means “who has made, or let, or allowed”, and is rendered as “by/ Whose grace”.   (morning) stands for, and refers to, “day”, and 朝朝 is therefore rendered as “each, every single day”.  入君口 (enter/feed, your, mouth) can be translated quite literally as “you feed your mouth”.  I had originally penned “you feed and feast” but have now polished it to “you feed and fete” for the additional “ei” sound (in the word “fete”) which now pervades the line, viz. “grace, fete, day”.

20 March 2018

Li Shen: 2 Ancient Airs (Pity the Peasants) 李紳: 古風 (憫農) 2首

Today, I am re-posting the text and my 2012 English rendition of Li Shen's 2 poems "Pity the Peasants" referred to as "Ancient Airs", but without my notes which may be distracting.  The notes can nonetheless be found in my original posts posted in May and April 2012 (links below).

The 2 poems are 5-character quatrains.  I had rendered the 1st poem in tetrameter (4 feet or beats) but had been unable to do so for the 2nd poem which ended up in hexameter (6 feet or beats).  I hope you will not find the lines in my rendition of the 2nd poem too long since I have invariably provided a pause (caesura) mid-line (e.g. line 1: "... in the rice-field / under the ...").  You will not be made breathless reading my 6-beat lines.   

A:  Li Shen (772-846) "Ancient Air/Pity the Peasants 1 of 2"

Each grain of millet sown in spring 

Will by autumn harvest, a myriad bring.
Across the land no fields lie vacant, yet  
Peasants still found----starving, dying.

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa)  
譯者黃宏發
8th April 2010 (revised 9.4.10; 25.4.12)
李紳: 古風/憫農 2 其1

春種一粒粟
 秋收萬顆子
四海無閑田
農夫猶餓死


B:  Li Shen (772-846) "Ancient Air/Pity the Peasants 2 of 2"  

He heaves his hoe in the rice-field, under the noonday sun,
Onto the soil of the rice-field, his streaming sweat beads run.
Ah, do you or don’t you know it?  That bowl of rice we eat:
Each grain, each ev’ry granule, the fruit of his labour done.

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa)  
譯者黄宏發
17th March 2010 (revised 18.3.10; 22.3.10; 24.3.10; 25.3.10; 30.3.10; 17.8.10)
李紳: 古風/憫農 2首 其2 
鋤禾日當午
汗滴禾下土
誰知盤中飧
粒粒皆辛苦


07 March 2018

王昌齢 Wang Changling: 閨怨 Young Wife's Regret


Today, I am posting Wang Changling's "Young Wife's Regret" which I translated 2 years ago.  I do hope you will enjoy it:-

Wang Changling (698-757): Young Wife’s Regret

1   (Young wife in her boudoir, knows not of a cheerless hour;)
     A young wife in her boudoir, knows not of a cheerless hour; (revised 12.3.18)
2   (A spring day, in gay array, she ascends the emerald tower.)
     One spring day, in gay array, she ascends the emerald tower. (revised 12.3.18)
3   Sudden she sees, by the roadside, the hue of willows in tears,
4   Regrets she’d let her husband, for a peerage, leave her bower.

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa)    譯者: 黃宏發
12th January 2016 (revised 14.1.2017)
Translated from the original – 王昌齢: 閨怨

1   閨中少婦不知愁
2   春日凝粧上翠樓
3   忽見陌頭楊柳色
4   悔教夫壻覓封侯

Notes:-

*Form, Metre and Rhyme:  This English rendition of the quatrain is in hexameter (6 feet or beats) while the original is in four 7-character lines. The rhyme scheme is AAXA is in the original.

*Line 1:  I have rendered the title as “Young Wife’s Regret” which, in my view, are the key words, rather than a literal translation of (bower/boudoir) (plaint/lament).  閨中 means at home alone in a lady’s boudoir (husband away or unmarried) and is rendered literally as in her boudoir” here in line 1 and added to line 4 in the word “bower”.  For 少婦, I had considered “A   young bride which sounds younger and prettier, but have decided for “A   young wife which is closer to the original (woman/wife).  For  “A Young wife in her boudoir”, I suggest reading the word “in” stressed to make 3 beats for the first half of the line.  For I had considered “sorrow” and “woe”, but having to create a rhyme for “tower” (in line 2) and “bower” (word chosen for line 4), I have picked the word “hour” for the task, hence, “a sorrowful/woeful hour”, but on further consideration, I have found “sorrowful” and “woeful” too grave in tone, and have decided to change “sorrowful” or “woeful” to “cheerless”.  The second half of the line now reads: “… knows not of a cheerless hour” which goes well with the very cheerful “in gay array … she ascends the emerald tower” in line 2.

*Line 2:  The internal rhyme ofday, gay, array” here is an embellishment.  翠樓 green building or tower is rendered as emerald tower so that the young wife will not be misinterpreted as going to a 青樓 literally alsogreen building or tower” which, in Chinese, alludes to a pleasure house.

*Line 3:  忽 (sudden)(see) is rendered asSudden she sees(rather than the expectedSuddenly she sees”) so as to produce a more sudden effect.  Please note the word “sudden” is both adjective and adverb, hence no “-ly” is needed for the adverb.  (I had originally considered O sudden” with the word “O” used partly as an exclamation and partly to stand for “all of a” in “all of a sudden” which is an adverbial phrase meaning “suddenly”, but have come to regard it trivial.)  陌頭 is translated as roadsideas literally it means the end/beginning of paths in the fields, hence, refers to roads at either/both ends.   is rendered literally as hue, and I have avoided specifying green to be the colour, as both in Chinese and hue in English can, in addition to colour, mean countenance, appearance, scenery, etc.  I have expanded the simply literal translation of 楊柳 as “willows” to bring out the originally intended allusion to parting.  The Chinese, in the old days, used to pluck willow twigs to see friends and relative leave home, symbolic of their wishing their loved ones would “stay” , which word shares with “willow” the same pronunciation “liu”.  I had originally simply added “weeping” to “willows” specifying the 楊柳 as 垂柳 (drooping, hence, weeping willows) to make explicit the allusion to parting but have decided for “the hue of willows in tears” over “the hue of weeping willows” and “the hue of willows weeping”.

*Line 4:   (teach) is translated as “let” which is what I take it to mean in this context, in other words, just agreeing to let her husband leave home to seek to be made a noble by the emperor (probably for meritorious service in the army), and should not be taken to mean teaching or urging, or even suggesting her husband to do so.  For 覓封侯 (seek to be made a marquis), I have considered “for a title” (Witter Bynner in his “The Jade Mountain” p. 180), “for marquisate”, “for a  rank”, “for honours”, and “for knighthood”, and have decided for “for peerage”. Nobles in Britain are of 5 ranks: (1) duke, (2) marquess (marquis), (3) earl, (4) viscount, and (5) baron (usually translated into Chinese as 公 侯 伯 子 男 respectively), and are known as peers, hence, “for or to seek the title of a marquis (who, like the others, is a peer)” is “for peerage”. I have added “leave her bower” at the end (not in the original but implied in the word “leave home to seek”) to complete the rhyme and to avoid making explicit the implied meaning of “going to war” in consistence with the original.

20 February 2018

Li Bai: 3 Verses to the Tune of Qing and Ping (for Lady Yang) 李白: 清平調 3首

Today, the 5th day of the Chinese Lunar New Year, I am posting again my rendition of 3 verses "To the Tune of Qing and Ping (for Lady Yang)" by the great Chinese "poet immortal" Li Bai (701-762).  They had been posted here (see links) some years ago in June, August and October 2010.  I hope you will enjoy them:-


A:  Li Bai (701-762) "To the Tune of Qing and Ping (for Lady Yang) 1 of 3" 

In clouds, I think of her raiment, in flowers, see her face,
Blooming, beaming by the railing, in Zephyr’s dewy embrace.
‘Tis only on Hills of Emerald, might such a beauty be seen, else 
By moonlight at Jasper Terrace, be blest to encounter her grace.

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa) 
譯者:黃宏發
15th January 2010 (revised 18.1.10; 20.1.10; 21.1.10; 9.2.10; 26.2.10)
http://chinesepoemsinenglish.blogspot.hk/2010/06/li-bai-1st-of-three-verses-to-qing-and.html
Translated from the original - 
李白: 清平調 3首 其1

雲想衣裳花想容
春風拂檻露華濃
若非羣玉山頭見
會向瑶臺月下逢


B:  Li Bai (701-762) "To the Tune of Qing and Ping (for Lady Yang) 2 of 3"

Ablush, abloom, O peony, your fragrance dewdrops retain!
That nymph of mists and mizzles, was a rendezvous dreamt in vain;
And who in the courts of old times, your beauty might match? I ask.
‘Twas (pity!) the pretty Feiyan, while her new paint was yet to wane.

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa) 
譯者: 黃宏發
23rd January 2010 (revised 25.1.10; 4.2.10; 10.2.10; 7.4.10)
http://chinesepoemsinenglish.blogspot.hk/2010/08/li-bai-2nd-of-three-verses-to-qing-and.html
Translated from the original - 
李白: 清平調 3首 其2

一枝紅艷露凝香
雲雨巫山枉斷腸
借問漢宮誰得似
可憐飛燕倚新妝 


C:  Li Bai (701-762) "To the Tune of Qing and Ping (for Lady Yang) 3 of 3"

Famed peony, fairest lady----in love requited, in bliss,
With the monarch’s eyes, all smiles, to find you, never miss.
North of the Agar Pavilion, by the railing together you lean,
Zephyr’s moods melancholic, to dispel, disperse, dismiss.

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa) 
譯者: 黄宏發
7th April 2010 (revised 8.4.10; 15.10.10) 
李白: 清平調 3首 其3

名花傾國兩相歡
長得君王帶笑看
解釋春風無限恨
沈香亭北倚闌干


09 February 2018

劉禹錫 Liu Yuxi: 石頭城/金陵五題 其一 The Stone City /Five Titles on Jinling #1

Today, I am posting a poem on the "Stone City" (present day Nanjing, then called Jinling 金陵) by the great middle Tang dynasty poet Liu Yuxi 劉禹鍚 which I translated last February.  I do hope you will enjoy my rendition:-

Liu Yuxi: The Stone City/Five Titles on Jinling #1

1   Surrounded by hills, this old capital, its environs still in place---   
2   Flood-tides still storm the empty city, and ebb, and quiet befalls.
3   East of the waters of Qinhuai River, that same old ancient moon,
4   Deep in the night, still climbs across the jagged battlement walls.

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa)      譯者: 黃宏發
3rd February 2017
Translated from the original – 劉禹錫: 石頭城/金陵五題 其一

1   山圍故國周遭在
2   潮打空城寂寞回
3   淮水東邊舊時月
4   夜深還過女牆來

Notes:-

*Form, Metre and Rhyme:  The original is a 7-character quatrain.  This English rendition is in heptameter (7 beats or feet) while the original is in 7-syllable lines.  The rhyme scheme is XAXA as in the original.

*Title:  石頭城 (stone, head, city) is the other name for present-day Nanjing 南京 and is used by the poet to refer to Jinling 金陵 which was the capital city of 6 dynasties before the Tang 唐 dynasty (618-907), viz. (1) Wu 吴    or Eastern Wu 東吳 (222-280) in the late Han 漢 period of the Three Kingdoms 三國, (2) Eastern Jin 東晉 (317-420), and the Southern Dynasties of (3)  Song (420-479), (4) Qi (479-502), (5) Liang (502-557) and (6) Chen (557-589). 
    
*Line 1:  (state or nation or country) is rendered as “capital” as it is meant to refer not to the state but its capital city.  周遭 (surroundings) is translated literally as “environs”, and (present or exist or intact) is rendered as “in place”.  The word “still”, which is implied in all 4 lines, is added here to make abundantly clear the sense of the poem: the city, its environs, the flood-tides, the Qinhuai River, the moon, the battlements are still the same----but the past is gone forever.

*Line 2:  As the city is inland, on the south bank of the Yangzi River and quite a distance from its estuary, (tide) does not refer to tides that occur in very large bodies of water such as seas and large lakes, but to waves of seasonal flood waters of the Yangzi River, and is rendered as “Flood-tides”.   (hit or beat or pound) is rendered as “storm” and (return) rendered as “ebb”.  I have, as explained in line 1, added the word “still” to qualify “storm … and ebb”.  寂寞 in this context should be taken to mean “calm” or “tranquility” and not “lonely” or “lonesome”, and is rendered as “and quiet befalls” which, also, creates a rhyme for “walls” in line 4.

*Line 3:  淮水 (Huai, water) refers to the “Qinhuai River” and is rendered as such, and 東邊 (east, side) rendered as “East of the waters of” with “waters” added to reflect the presence of the word in the original.   舊時月 is rendered literally as “that same old ancient moon” with “ancient” added to make this second half of the line a perfect iambic trimeter.

*Line 4:  女牆 (woman, wall) means “battlement” (and has nothing to do with “woman”) which is a wall with alternating crenels (empty or open parts) and merlons (solid or sheltered parts) on the top for defence or decoration purposes.  I have rendered it as “the jagged battlement walls” with “jagged” added to somehow explain the shape.

  

27 January 2018

Li Yu: 2 Verses to the Tune of Xian Jian Huan 李煜: 相見歡 2首

I started this blog 10 years ago in January 2008, posting here my translation of classical Chinese poems, one poem a month. I now think it is time that I should begin to polish my renditions with a view to ultimate publication in book form.  To begin the process, I began (last November then December) to post here my polished renditions of the poems included in the internet report "10 Most Popular Tang Dynasty Poems in Hong Kong". 

Today, I am giving you my polished renditions of 2 poems by Li Yu, the last Emperor of the South Tang dynasty, both poems written to the tune of Xian Jian Huan  相見歡 (Happy Together), also known as Wu Ye Ti 烏夜啼 (Crows Caw at Night).  These are poems or verses written to a tune the music score of which might have vanished but the pattern/tune of long and short lines remain and is adhered to.  In Chinese, they are known as 詞 "ci" which could best be translated as "lyrics", however, "patterned long-short lined verses" may be prefered for being more descriptive.

The theme of these two verses is melancholy, its cause: loss of his empire and separation from his love.  It is a sad melancholy, but without a single word of bitterness (with resignation?) yet still so sad, so very sad.  I give you this melancholic world of the last emperor of the demised South Tang dynasty, held captive by the emperor of the new Song dynasty.  (Please visit the 2 links for notes written in the original posts.) 
  

A:  Li Yu (937-978) "Xiang Jian Huan (Happy Together)/Flower groves have shed ..."

Flower groves have shed their spring red halo;
Oh, far too soon to go!
Weathering not the morning sleets and
   the winds by evening blow.

Tears of rouge you're dripping,
Together our wine we're sipping;
Ever again in the morrow?
Ah, life is beset, as ever, with sorrow
   as eastwards waters must flow.

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa)  
譯者: 黃宏發
14 February 2011 (revised 25.2.11; 10.3.11: 30.4.11; 22.1.2018)
http://chinesepoemsinenglish.blogspot.hk/2011/05/li-yu-xiang-jian-huanhappy-togetherwu.html
Translated from the original - 
李煜相見歡 (林花謝了春红)

林花謝了春红
太怱
無奈朝來寒雨
    晚來風

胭脂淚
相留醉
幾時重
自是人生長恨
    水長東


B:  Li Yu (937-978) "Xiang Jian Huan (Happy Together)/Alone, in silence ...)

Alone, in silence, up the west tower I go:

The moon is like a sickle; 
That desolate phoenix tree, this clear, cool autumn, 
    locked deep in the courtyard below.

O threads I can’t cut through, 
In a tangle I can’t undo!
Such is my parting sorrow---
A taste that tastes so odd, so strange that my heart   
    ne’er ever before did know.

Translated by Andrew W.F. Wong (Huang Hongfa)  
譯者: 黃宏發
3rd March 2011 (revised 7.3.11; 8.3.11; 4.9.12; 19.11.17)
http://chinesepoemsinenglish.blogspot.hk/2012/09/li-yu-xiang-jian-huan.html
Translated from the original - 
李煜相見歡  (無言獨上西樓)

無言獨上西樓
月如鉤
寂寞梧桐深院
    鎖清秋

剪不斷
理還亂
是離愁
別是一般滋味
    在心頭